What is the purpose of semiconductor materials in electronic components?


Semiconductors are utilized in various industries including integrated circuits, anti vibration table consumer electronics, communication systems, photovoltaic power generation, lighting applications, and high-power conversion. This type of material falls between conductors and insulators, possessing a unique ability to be fabricated into two distinct substrates. These substrates exhibit the alternating characteristics of insulation and conduction that conductors and insulators lack. For example, a semiconductor can act as a diode by providing reverse insulation or as a transistor by allowing conduction through a controlled terminal while remaining insulated elsewhere.

In semiconductor circuits, the semiconductor changes its local impurity concentration in order to form some device structure that controls the circuit, semiconductor test such as a single pass diode or transistor amplification.

Classification and performance of semiconductors

Elemental semiconductors, such as silicon and selenium, are solid materials with specific technical characteristics. voltage probe They are composed primarily of a single element and are sensitive to trace impurities and environmental factors. Currently, silicon and germanium are the most widely used due to their superior performance. Selenium is mainly used in electronic lighting and optoelectronic information industries, while silicon is extensively utilized in the semiconductor industry. The presence of silicon dioxide can hinder mask formation during device production, but it also contributes to the stability of semiconductor devices and promotes automation in industrial production.

The term inorganic composite semiconductor refers to materials primarily made up of single elements, including those commonly used in the semiconductor industry. These elements are typically categorized into groups I-VII and can form various compounds such as III-VI, IV-IV, V-VI, and VI-VI. However, not all compounds possess the necessary properties for use as semiconductors due to limitations in elemental properties and production methods. Semiconductors are crucial components in high-speed devices, with InP being a particularly efficient material for transistors used in photoelectric integrated circuits and anti-radiation devices. Other materials with high electrical conductivity play a key role in applications such as light-emitting diodes.

An organic compound semiconductor is formed when carbon bonds within molecules create conduction bands. By chemically adding to this energy band, electrical conductivity can be achieved, producing a cost-effective and easily processed material with good solubility and light properties. The conductivity of this semiconductor can be regulated by manipulating molecules, making it suitable for a variety of applications such as organic films and lighting.

The amorphous semiconductor, also known as the glass semiconductor, belongs to a class of materials characterized by a mix of short-range ordered and long-range disordered structures. This type of semiconductor is primarily formed by altering the atomic positions and disrupting the original periodic arrangement. The difference between the crystalline and amorphous states lies in the level of atomic order present. Mastering the properties of amorphous semiconductors has proven to be a challenging task. However, with advancements in technology, these semiconductors have found applications in various fields. The production process is straightforward, making them popular in engineering applications. They are also highly effective at absorbing light, making them ideal for use in solar cells and liquid crystal displays.

A semiconductor without impurities and lattice defects is known as an intrinsic semiconductor. In low temperature conditions, the valence band of the semiconductor is fully occupied. However, after thermal excitation, some electrons from the valence band can move into the higher energy empty band, called the conduction band. This results in equal charges moving in opposite directions, creating directional motion under external electric fields. This phenomenon is known as electron conduction and hole conduction for the conduction of positively charged vacancies.

The enterprise's developmental mixed conductivity, known as intrinsic conductivity, is caused by the creation of electron-hole pairs. These pairs form when the electron information in the conduction band merges with the hole. This process, called recombination, leads to the disappearance of the electron-hole pair and releases energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation or lattice thermal vibration (heat). At a certain operating temperature, there is a balance between electron-hole pair generation and recombination, resulting in a fixed carrier density and resistivity for semiconductor companies. However, as temperature rises, more electron-hole pairs are produced which increases carrier density and decreases resistivity. Pure semiconductors without lattice defects have relatively high resistivity.

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